The Vitamin D Receptor

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a necessary protein that is stimulated by vitamin D. It is involved in maintaining the mineral balance in the body and leading to growth and hair advancement. It also treats adipose flesh.

VDRs are expressed in the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial cellular material, and many the immune system cell types. They are thought to regulate the intestinal compression of calcium mineral, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D upon bone maintenance. They are also thought to perform an important function in metabolic rate.

VDR is found in a variety of areas, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they may be most widely expressed in the kidneys and your bones.

The VDR is phosphorylated on serine residues by a couple of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect of kinases upon VDR is normally ligand reliant. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 simply by PKC decreased VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Studies have shown that VDRs can be found in a subsection, subdivision, subgroup, subcategory, subclass of glial cells, especially in oligodendrocytes in white matter. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been discovered in a number of glial cell lines, no information has been provided that the presence of VDR in glia is a cause of increased risk of tumorigenesis.

In addition , VDR is apparently present in a subset of neurons. Actually nuclear staining has been exhibited in man cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein can be found in human key glioblastoma skin cells. In contrast, a little recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.